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Educational Civil Engineering Dictionary

Discussion in 'Education' started by Tazul Islam, Jun 15, 2016. Replies: 12 | Views: 865

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    Ductility:
    Ability of a structure to go through in-elastic deformation without rupture.

    Redundancy:
    it is the ability to redistribute the load. Simple beam is determinate. Fixed beam is indeterminate by 2 degrees so it has two redundant actions. fixed supported beam is more better as indeterminate structure can redistribute the load. When load increases support becomes plastic and it turns into a simply supported beam. But simply supported does not go through the stage of plastic hinge rather they fail directly.

    Hardness:
    It is the ability to resist abrasion.

    Steel Strength:
    Maximum load which an object can resist. OR it is the maximum load that the steel can resist before failure. Steel is said to be failed when it has yielded. It is thus called yield strength

    Toughness:
    Ability of a structure or structural component to absorb energy.

    Fatigue:
    It is a progressive, localized permanent damage under fluctuating stress.
     
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    Hydrology
    Hydrology deals with the origin, occurrence, circulation, distribution, the physical and chemical properties of water and its interaction with living organisms. Hydrology is an essential field of science since everything from tiny organisms to individuals to societies to the whole of civilization - depends so much on water.

    Water Management
    The activity of planning, developing, distributing and managing the optimum use of water resources.

    Environment:

    The physical and biotic habitat which surrounds us; that which can be seen, heard, touched, smelled and tasted.

    Environmental Science:
    An integrative applied science that draws upon nearly all of the natural sciences to address environmental quality and health issues.

    Environmental Engineering:
    Uses environmental science principles, along with engineering concepts and techniques, to assess the impacts of social activities on the environment, people, and to protect both human and environmental health. Environmental engineering requires a sound foundation in the environmental sciences and consists of;

    • Provision of safe, palatable and ample water supplies
    • Proper disposal of or recycling of wastewater and solid wastes
    • Control of water, soil and atmospheric pollution.
     
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    Rigid Frame

    Its is that type of structure in which the members are joined together by rigid joints e.g. welded joints.


    Truss (Pin connected joints)

    A type of structure formed by members in triangular form, the resulting figure is called a truss. In truss joints are pin connected and loads are applied at joints. No shear force & bending moment are produced. Only axial compression and axial tension is to be determined while analyzing a truss


    Structural Members

    Those members that are interconnected in such a way so as to constitute a structure are called structural members.


    Beam

    Beam is a flexure member of the structure. It is subjected to transverse loading such as vertical loads, and gravity loads. These loads create shear and bending within the beam.


    Columns

    A long vertical member mostly subjected to compressive loads is called column
     
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    Strut

    A compressive member of a structure is called strut.


    Beam-Column

    A structural member subjected to compression as well as flexure is called beam column


    {loadposition articlemid}


    Grid

    A network of beam intersecting each other at right angles and subjected to vertical loads is called grid.


    Cables and Arches

    Cables are usually suspended at their ends and are allowed to sag. The forces are then pure tension and are directed along the axis of the cable. Arches are similar to cables except hath they are inverted. They carry compressive loads that are directed along the axis of the arch.


    Plates and Slabs

    Plates are three dimensional flat structural components usually made of metal that are often found in floors and roofs of structures. Slabs are similar to plates except that they are usually made of concrete.
     
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    Absolute Accuracy

    A measure which indicates how closely the coordinates of a point in Ordnance Survey map data agree with the true National Grid coordinates of the same point on the ground. As the true position can never be known exactly, the statistic is quoted relative to the best known position determined by precise survey methods.


    Absolute Coordinates

    A coordinate pair or triplate measured directly from the origin of the coordinate system in which it lies and not to any other point in the system.


    Abstraction

    The process of selection, generalisation and aggregation.


    Acre

    Unit of area measure equal to 43,560 square feet.


    Accuracy

    The closeness of the results of observations, computations or estimates to the true values or the values accepted as being true. Accuracy relates to the exactness of the operation by which the result is obtained.
     
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    Accuracy Ratio or Error Ratio

    Error ratio is a means of expressing the magnitude of the error of the survey in relation to the distance traversed by the survey. Intuitively, a unit of error is of greater importance in a short traverse than in a longer traverse. The error ratio is expressed as the quotient of the absolute value of the error and the distance traversed.


    Add Tape

    An add tape has an additional major division at the head, beyond the zero mark of the tape, which is subdivided into finer graduations, usually in tenths of a foot (or meter), sometimes in hundredths. The use of this tape requires that the minor reading be added to the major division reading.


    Adjacent

    Near to but not reaching or contacting.


    Adjustments

    Since all real measurements are imperfect, some amount of error will accumulate in the course of a survey. That error can be logically distributed throughout the survey by various adjustment procedures (i.e., manipulation of the data to produce a more logical result). Adjustments can and should be done with any set of measurements for which error can be assessed.


    Aerial Photograph

    A photograph taken by a camera mounted onto some form of flying object within the Earth's Atmosphere. The resultant images are used in GIS as a background layer or used by surveyors to digitize. It is called aerial photo or air photograph.
     
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    Aggregation

    The grouping together of a "selected" set of like entities to form one entity. For example, grouping sets of adjacent area units to form larger units, often as part of a spatial unit hierarchy such as wards grouped into districts. Any attribute data is also grouped or is summarised to give statistics for the new spatial unit.


    Aliasing

    Visibly jagged steps along angled lines or object edges, due to sharp tonal contrasts between pixels.


    Altitude

    The vertical angle between the plane of the horizon and the line to the object which is observed. In photogrammetry, altitude applies to elevation above a datum of points in space.


    Angle Right

    Clockwise horizontal angular measure.


    Angle Left

    Counterclockwise horizontal angular measure
     
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    Aneroid barometer

    An instrument used to obtain heights above sea level by measuring atmospheric pressure. Since atmospheric pressure varies with the height above or below sea level, the height can be read directly from the height scale on the barometer


    Arc

    A locus of points that forms a curve that is defined by a mathematical function.


    Area

    A bounded contiguous two dimensional object which may or may not include its boundary. Usually defined in terms of an external polygon or in terms of a set of grid cells.


    Artificial and modified surfaces

    A General cover category consisting of roads and right-of-ways, buildings, parking lots, farmsteads and ranch headquarters, urban and built-up areas, small built-up areas, rural transportation, and any other buildings that have a surface area greater than 1,000 square feet.


    Archaeological record

    The archaeological record exists as a repository. Inside lie the decaying material remains of ancient beings and civilisations. As archaeologists approach their work, they encounter raw data from the archaeological record that serves as the source of their evidence to interpret.
     
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    Astronomic North

    North by celestial observation of Sun or stars.


    ATS

    The Automated Title System is the computerised legal register of freehold land, State tenure land and Reserve land in Queensland. The system also automates elements of the document receiving, lodgement, tracking and registration processes.

    1st Floor

    It is the floor that has 1 storey height above ground.


    Basement Floor

    The floor of the basement of the building. It is also called cellar. The basement floor is either completely or partially below the ground floor. A basement can be used in almost exactly the same manner as an additional above-ground floor of a house or other building. However, the use of basements depends largely on factors specific to a particular geographical area such as climate, soil, seismic activity, building technology, and real estate economics.


    The concrete floor in most basements is structurally not part of the foundation; only the basement walls are. Since warm air rises, basements are typically cooler than the rest of the house. In summer, this makes basements damp, due to the higher relative humidity.



    Basement Wall

    The wall surrounding the basement floor is called the basement wall. The basement walls can be regarded structurally as part of the foundation. The basement walls are shear walls which can resist lateral laods as well. Moreover, these walls are meant to be higly non-porous and water resistant.

     

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